In reciprocating motion, with a short stroke, the diaphragm at the top of the connecting rod flexes up and down in a closed chamber, creating vacuum or pressure. Even at maximum duty, output air is cool and oil-free. As ambient air enters and leaves the head, it never goes near the motor to pick up heat and foreign matter. Cooler temperatures add to overall efficiency and service life. The connecting rod is bonded to its bearing not clamped as in light duty pumps. Ensuring greater strength and durability where work loads are greatest.